- The level of the emissions cap was determined largely by each nation, including additional negotiation with the European Commission;
- It covered only CO2, and included only power plants with a capacity greater than 20 MW and other industrial facilities; these represented 42% of emissions;
- Allocations of emission allowances relied primarily on recent historical records; they were offered at no cost; and
- Offsets favoring an emitting source from emissions savings reached in projects outside the EU were allowed.
- The level of the emissions cap conformed to the limits of the Kyoto Protocol;
- Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are partially covered as a greenhouse gas; and
- Limits on emissions from air travel are to begin in 2012.
- National emissions caps are to be replaced by single EU-wide caps covering the entire region; they decrease by 1.74% per year starting in 2010 with the objective of delivering 21% reduction referenced to 2005 by 2020;
- Additional greenhouse gases and a wider range of industries are to be covered;
- Emissions allocations for electric generating plants will not be free; other industries begin with 80% of allowances free but diminishing to none free by 2020; and
- 90% of the allowances will be sold by auction; the proceeds are to be distributed to the member nations according to their 2005 emissions.
Per capita emissions
Change in CO2, %
Change in population, %
© 2011 Henry Auer